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Electric mobility

What is the electric mobility

In accordance with DIRECTIVE 2014/94/UE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL of 22 October 2014 on the implementation of an infrastructure for alternative fuels, an electric vehicle is a motor vehicle equipped with a drive train with at least one non-peripheral electric mechanism that functions as an energy converter and is equipped with a rechargeable system for the storage of electrical energy that can be recharged externally.

There are currently five different categories of electrification:

  • Hybrid Electric Vehicle HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle HEV).
  • Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle PHEV).
  • Vehículo de rango extendido (Range Extended Electric Vehicle REEV).
  • Range Extended Electric Vehicle REEV (Battery Electric Vehicle BEV).
  • Battery Electric Vehicle BEV (Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle FCEV).

The first four categories are organised from lower to higher level of electrification. The BEV is pure electric and the HEV is the conventional hybrid that cannot be connected to the grid (not plug-in). Both the PHEV and the REEV are considered plug-in hybrid vehicles because they combine two external fuels: petrol and electricity (in different proportions). Finally, there is also the option of electrification by fuel cell (FCEV), which is fuelled by hydrogen (H2). We would point out that, according to the European Directive, the HEV is not considered an electric vehicle.

Applicable regulation

Main reference policies:

In the field of electrification of transport, there are different regulations in the following areas:

European
  • White Paper on Transport
  • Communication of the Commission of 24 January 2013, “Clean energy for transport: a European strategy in the field of alternative fuels”.
  • Directive 2014/94/EU, on the implementation of an infrastructure for alternative fuels.
State
  • National Action Framework for Vehicles with Alternative Energies.
Basque
  • Master Plan for Sustainable Transport in Euskadi 2030.
  • Energy Strategy for Euskadi 2030.
  • Science, Technology and Innovation Plan Euskadi 2020.
  • Ris3 (Smart Specialisation Regional Initiative) Scope: Energibasque
  • Climate strategy 2050

Horizontal Property Act:

Based on the criterion of facilitating the maximum possible number of charging points in collective garages. The Spanish Horizontal Property Act (LPH) guarantees the right to install a private charging point inside a collective garage without asking for authorisation for the Residents’ Association, provided that guarantees are given that the cost of said installation will be totally covered by the persons directly interested in installing it.

 

Current situation and prospects

Sales of electric vehicles

The vehicle fleet takes years to evolve, so annual sales data are used as indicators of the evolution of the market and the penetration of electric mobility, in order to make comparisons and establish monitoring indicators.

International:

The most advanced countries in electric mobility are:

Charging infrastructure

The availability of charging points accessible to the public is one of the key factors in the penetration of electric vehicles in the market.

Electric mobility in Euskadi

In Euskadi around 1,200 vehicles are on the roads and there are more than 80 public charging points, of which around 15% are fast-charge points.

In Euskadi the Integral Plan for Electric Mobility is in place. It sets a target for 2020 that 4% of new vehicle registrations should be for electric vehicles, equivalent to a fleet of 4,800 electric vehicles.

The strategic objectives of the Plan are:

  • OE1

    Advance to a more sustainable mobility in Euskadi through increased demand for, and use of, electric means of transport.
  • OE2

    Drive the implementation of the local economy and knowledge, taking advantage of the needs of products, services, innovation and resources that arise from the implementation of the electric vehicle at the international level.
  • OE3

    Create an environment that fosters the adoption of electric mobility in society and companies by setting an example, training, promotion and awareness creation.

The strategic guidelines of the Plan are:

Objetivos del PIME y directrices estratégicas

Major projects in euskadi

IBIL

Set up in 2010 by the Ente Vasco de la Energía and Repsol, it is the oldest charging management body entered in the register of electric vehicle charges of the National Markets and Competition Commission. It provides charging services in the private (garages and companies) and public domains (public car parks, park-and-ride, shopping malls).


Other Initiatives

  • Cutting-edge companies in the development and manufacture of charging points (INGETEAM, ZIV…)
  • Adaptation of the Mercedes Benz factory in Vitoria-Gasteiz for the manufacture of the Mercedes Vito electric van.
  • Success stories in the use of electric vehicles:
    • Super Amara (Uvesco group), Eroski: home shopping deliveries
    • Osakidetza: medical care at home
    • Municipal Councils: :
      • Municipal units in Balmaseda, Zarátamo, Berriz, etc.
      • Local police force: Legazpi, Portugalete.
      • 100% electric buses: Bilbao, Donostia-San Sebastián,
      • Soon, Vitoria-Gasteiz and Donostia-San Sebastián (BEI – Smart Electric Bus), Irun.
    • 100% electric taxis in Bilbao, Donostia-San Sebastián and Oiartzun (100% electric ‘taxibus’ project).