In accordance with DIRECTIVE 2014/94/UE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL of 22 October 2014 on the implementation of an infrastructure for alternative fuels, an electric vehicle is a motor vehicle equipped with a drive train with at least one non-peripheral electric mechanism that functions as an energy converter and is equipped with a rechargeable system for the storage of electrical energy that can be recharged externally.
There are currently five different categories of electrification:
- Hybrid Electric Vehicle HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle HEV).
- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle PHEV).
- Vehículo de rango extendido (Range Extended Electric Vehicle REEV).
- Range Extended Electric Vehicle REEV (Battery Electric Vehicle BEV).
- Battery Electric Vehicle BEV (Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle FCEV).
The first four categories are organised from lower to higher level of electrification. The BEV is pure electric and the HEV is the conventional hybrid that cannot be connected to the grid (not plug-in). Both the PHEV and the REEV are considered plug-in hybrid vehicles because they combine two external fuels: petrol and electricity (in different proportions). Finally, there is also the option of electrification by fuel cell (FCEV), which is fuelled by hydrogen (H2). We would point out that, according to the European Directive, the HEV is not considered an electric vehicle.